A recent paper available online at  Science Today suggest that “microbes may have the capacity to learn”. Here is an excerpt from the post:

Researchers have long assumed that microbes respond to changes in their environment in a simple, straightforward manner. If the osmolarity in your gut suddenly rises, for example, microbes populating it will tweak their own osmolarity intracellularly to match. But Tavazoie suspected that homeostasis wasn’t the whole story, since microbial responses sometimes don’t directly relate to a stimulus. For example, after experiencing a raise in temperature, bacteria often scale down oxygen metabolism — a seemingly unrelated move.

Read full story here.